Petrol Gasoline Toyota landcrusier workshop and repair manual

A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, tailored with run about petrol plus synonymous volatile fuels.The compression ratio of a internal-combustion engine or outside combustion engine is a value which represents the ratio of the amount of

A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, tailored with run about petrol plus synonymous volatile fuels. It was invented inside 1876 inside Germany by German inventor Nicolaus August Otto. In many petrol motors, the gas plus air are pre-mixed before compression. The pre-mixing was formerly completed inside a carburetor, nevertheless today it is actually completed by electronically controlled gas injection, except inside little machines where the cost/complication of electronics refuses to justify the added engine efficiency. The task differs from a diesel engine inside the system of mixing the gas plus air, plus inside utilizing spark plugs with initiate the combustion procedure. In a diesel engine, just air is compressed, as well as the gas is injected into pretty hot air at the finish of the compression stroke, plus self-ignites.
The compression ratio of a internal-combustion engine or outside combustion engine is a value which represents the ratio of the amount of its combustion room from its biggest capability with its smallest ability. It is a fundamental specification for several normal combustion motors.

In a piston engine, it's the ratio amongst the amount of the cylinder plus combustion room whenever the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, as well as the amount of the combustion room whenever the piston is at the best of its stroke.

For instance, a cylinder as well as its combustion room with all the piston at the bottom of its stroke can contain 1000 cc of air. When the piston has moved about the best of its stroke inside the cylinder, as well as the remaining amount inside the head or combustion room has been reduced with 100 cc, then your compression ratio will be proportionally described because 1000:100, or with fractional reduction, a 10:1 compression ratio.

A excellent compression ratio is desirable considering it enables an engine with extract more mechanical stamina from a provided mass of air-fuel mixture due with its high thermal efficiency. This happens considering internal combustion machines are heat motors, plus high efficiency is built considering high compression ratios allow the same combustion temperature with be reached with less gas, when providing a longer expansion cycle, creating more mechanical energy output plus reducing the exhaust temperature. It can be more helpful to consider it because an "expansion ratio", because more expansion reduces the temperature of the exhaust gases, plus consequently the stamina wasted with the ambiance. Diesel machines really have a high peak combustion temperature than petrol motors, yet the better expansion signifies they refuse less heat inside their cooler exhaust.

Higher compression ratios can still create gasoline machines topic with engine knocking when lower octane-rated gas is chosen, sometimes known because detonation. This may minimize efficiency or damage the engine when knock sensors are not present with retard the timing. But, knock sensors have been a requirement of the OBD-II specification employed inside 1996 model year cars plus new.

On the alternative hand, Diesel machines work found on the principle of compression ignition, thus a gas that resists autoignition might result late ignition, that will moreover cause engine knock.
The calculated compression ratio, because provided above, presumes which the cylinder is sealed at the bottom of the stroke, plus which the amount compressed is the actual amount.

However: intake valve closure constantly occurs following BDC, that can result a few of the intake charge with be compressed backwards from the cylinder by the increasing piston at low speeds; just the percentage of the stroke following intake valve closure is compressed. Intake port tuning and scavenging could let a better mass of charge with be caught inside the cylinder than the static amount might recommend intake cam timing, plus lower with more revolutionary intake cam timing, nevertheless usually lower than the static or "nominal" compression ratio.

The position of the piston is determined by trigonometry, utilizing the stroke size as well as the connecting rod size. The absolute cylinder stress is the happen of a exponent of the dynamic compression ratio. This exponent is a polytropic value for the ratio of varying heats for air plus synonymous gases at the temperatures present. This compensates for the temperature rise caused by compression, and heat lost with the cylinder. Under best conditions, the exponent will be 1.4, however a lower value, mostly between 1.2 plus 1.3 is utilized, because the amount of heat lost can differ amidst motors based about shape, size plus contents utilized, however, offers beneficial results for reasons of comparison. For instance, when the static compression ratio is 10:1, as well as the dynamic compression ratio is 7.5:1, a helpful value for cylinder stress might be^1.3 × atmospheric stress, or 13.7 bar.

The 2 corrections for dynamic compression ratio affect cylinder stress inside opposite instructions, yet not inside equal strength. An engine with excellent static compression ratio plus late consumption valve closure usually have a DCR synonymous with an engine with lower compression however earlier consumption valve closure.

Additionally, the cylinder stress developed whenever an engine is running is high than which shown inside a compression test for many factors.

The much high velocity of the piston whenever an engine is running vs cranking enables less time for stress with bleed past the piston rings into the crankcase.

a running engine is covering the cylinder walls with more oil than an engine which has been cranked at low RPM, that assists the seal.

the high temperature of the cylinder might create high pressures whenever running vs. a static test, even a test done with all the engine close working temperature.

A running engine refuses to stop taking air & fuel into the cylinder whenever the piston reaches BDC; The mixture which is rushing into the cylinder throughout the downstroke develops momentum plus continues quickly following the vacuum ceases. This really is called scavenging. Intake tuning, cylinder head shape, valve timing plus exhaust tuning determine how effectively an engine scavenges.

In January 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced with substitute the 8-year-old 80 series. The 100 series was previewed inside October 1997 because the "Grand Cruiser" at the 32nd Tokyo Motor Show. Development started inside 1992, with final shape being frozen inside mid-1994.
Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser GXL

There are 2 distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 as well as the 105. The 2 versions look fairly synonymous, nevertheless there are immense variations below the bodywork. Despite these variations plus official model names, both the 100 plus 105 are jointly termed as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over most its chassis plus powertrain within the 80-series with coil suspended strong axles front plus back, plus straight-6 petrol plus diesel machines. These models were just available inside African, Australian, Russian, plus South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a somewhat wider chassis, independent front suspension plus 2 modern motors. The change with IFS had been a initial for a Land Cruiser, plus was produced with better on-road handling. But it moreover limited the vehicle’s off-road capability plus durability, therefore the choice to provide the strong axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models inside certain markets. The table under identifies the range of 100 plus 105 models plus their worldwide supply.

Although the 100 plus 105 bodies are identical, there are several outdoor graphic indications amongst the 2. The many apparent is the front end of the car frequently appearing lower than the back found on the 100 models, due with the IFS. The other signal is the shape of the wheels. The 100 models have virtually flat wheel designs, whilst the 105 models have dished wheels. This difference enables the 2 versions with retain synonymous wheel tracks, despite that the 100 has a greatly wider axle track with let for the IFS program.
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser

The introduction of the V8 engine was moreover a initially for a Land Cruiser, plus was particularly intended with better sales inside the North-American marketplace, where it was truly the only engine accessible. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially just obtainable in the range-topping GXV model, whilst entry plus mid-range models were the 105 driven by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel motors. The modern 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was put into the Australian range inside October 2000 following being obtainable in Europe as well as the UK because release inside 1998. The 4WD media inside Australia were important of Toyota’s choice to provide the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine just inside combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine mentioned "We usually not forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with all the mighty four.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series created the basis for the Lexus LX 470, that was equally available inside Japan because the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon inside the UK plus Ireland from 1998 with 2007.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models available inside many nations. Total international manufacturing with date was 3.72 million cars.

The 100 series stayed inside creation till late 2007, with many minor facelifts including headlights, taillights, front grill, back spoiler plus specification changes introduced over time.
Independent suspension is a wide expression for any car suspension program which enables every wheel found on the same axle with move vertically independently of every different. This really is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle program inside that the wheels are connected – movement about 1 side affects the wheel found on the different side. Note which "independent" pertains with the motion or path of movement of the wheels/suspension. It is prevalent for the left plus appropriate sides of the suspension with be associated with anti-roll bars or different these mechanisms. The anti-roll bar ties the left plus appropriate suspension spring rates together however, refuses to tie their motion together.

Many contemporary cars have independent front suspension. Many cars have an independent back suspension. IRS, because the name signifies, has the back wheels independently sprung. A totally independent suspension has an independent suspension about all wheels. Many early independent systems employed swing axles, yet contemporary systems utilize Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.

Independent suspension usually provides better ride standard plus handling characteristics, due with lower unsprung fat as well as the ability of every wheel with address the road undisturbed by escapades of the different wheel found on the car. Independent suspension demands extra technology effort plus cost inside development vs the beam or reside axle arrangement. A surprisingly complex IRS answer will furthermore cause high production bills.

The key cause for lower unsprung fat relative with a live axle shape is the fact that, for driven wheels, the differential device refuses to shape piece of the unsprung ingredients of the suspension program. Instead it is very either bolted straight with the vehicle's chassis or even more commonly with a subframe.

The relative movement between your wheels as well as the differential is accomplished from the utilization of swinging driveshafts associated through universal joints, analogous with the constant-velocity joints chosen inside front wheel drive cars.
The Land Cruiser 80 series was unveiled inside October 1989 at the Tokyo Motor Show plus established inside early 1990. It had swing-out back doorways, that were changed with a winch door inside 1994. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja inside Colombia plus Venezuela due with its roundness, however, it was officially introduced because Land Cruiser Autana inside both nations. The name is a reference with the Tepui mesa Autana, a dazzling plateau plus cave program over the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million cars.

1990 — The 80 series station wagon was introduced, changing the 60 series. All 80s available inside North America plus Europe have a full-time four-wheel drive program. In Japan, Africa, plus Australia, a part-time program was nevertheless accessible. 80s yielded between 1990 plus 1991 had an open centre differential that was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO. From 1992 forward, cars with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling which transmitted a maximum of 30% torque with the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable inside 4HI plus automatically secured inside 4LO.
1990 — A modern generation of diesel motors were introduced, adding with the machines obtainable in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine,, or perhaps a 1HD-T direct injection turbo diesel.
1991 — By mid-1991 the was introduced with the Australian marketplace, a gas injected variation of the 3F.
1993 — An advanced 24-valve, four.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 as well as the total wheelbase was prepared somewhat longer. Front plus back axle lockers appeared because an alternative. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become obtainable in US models. In May 1993 Toyota started utilizing R134 refrigerant inside the air conditioner program. Serial numbers lower than JT3DJ81xxxxx38947 employ R12 refrigerant.
1994 — A limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin was introduced into the Australian marketplace. They have four.5 L directly 6 petrol motors with double-overhead cams, automatic or guide transmission plus 158 kW at 4600 rpm. The vehicle is blue within the Blue Marlin fish plus they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the vehicle. Some of the attributes which the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, energy windows, drive brakes, leather gear knob plus steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles plus sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited-slip differential, anti-lock brakes, force steering, CD plus cassette players, flares, along with a limited edition bull bar. Just 500 were created.
1995 — Driver plus passenger airbags were introduced because were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors plus an anti-lock braking program. The "T O Y O T A" badge was changed with all the contemporary Toyota logo.
1996 — In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers completed initially plus 2nd inside the unmodified manufacturing class. All American plus British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes plus airbags because standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year plus was changed by the Lexus LX 450.
1997 — A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built especially for collectors plus consequently called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with all the "D" windows painted dark gray plus unique gray side moldings, plus black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition was just accessible for the 1997 model year as well as the package was put into most accessible body hues.
1997 — 4744 FZJ80 Land Cruisers were available inside the United States because "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were obtainable in 2 colours; Antique Sage Pearl plus Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial amount badge found on the centre system, black pearl outdoor badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan plus brown leather interiors, plus wheels with all the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were produced with all the optional electrical front plus back locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed rooftop racks, plus running boards. There are certain examples which didn't have various of these extras. This really is the last year for the electrical locking front differentials.
2008 — Last 80-Series car was integrated Venezuela that was truly the only nation producing the cars following creation ended inside Japan inside 1997.
The most commonly known means of engine rating is what exactly is termed as the brake force, calculated at the flywheel, plus provided inside kilowatts or horsepower. This really is the actual mechanical energy output of the engine inside a usable plus complete shape. The expression "brake" originates from the utilization of the brake inside a dynamometer test with load the engine. For precision, it's significant with recognize what exactly is meant by usable plus complete. For instance, for a automobile engine, aside from friction plus thermodynamic losses inside the engine, force is absorbed by water pump, alternator, plus radiator enthusiast, therefore reducing the energy accessible at the flywheel with move the vehicle along. Power is moreover absorbed by the force steering pump plus air conditioner, nevertheless these are not installed for a force output test or calculation. Power output varies somewhat based on the vitality value of the gas, the ambient air temperature plus humidity, as well as the altitude. Therefore, there are agreed practices inside the USA plus Europe found on the gas with employ whenever testing, plus motors are rated at 25 ⁰C, plus 64 ⁰F at sea level, 50% humidity. Marine motors, because provided, often have no radiator enthusiast, plus usually no alternator. In these situations the quoted energy rating refuses to let for losses inside the radiator enthusiast plus alternator. The SAE inside USA, as well as the ISO inside Europe publish guidelines about actual procedures, and just how with apply corrections for deviating conditions like excellent altitude.

Car testers are many familiar with all the chassis dynamometer or "rolling road" installed inside countless workshops. This measures drive wheel brake horsepower, that is mostly 15-20% lower than the brake horsepower calculated at the crankshaft or flywheel about an engine dynamometer. Youtube movie showing workshop measuring of the car's force. The calculated energy curve inside kW is shown at 3:39.
The internal combustion engine is an engine where the combustion of the gas happens with an oxidizer inside a combustion room which is an key element of the functioning fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature plus high-pressure gases yielded by combustion apply direct force with several component of the engine. The force is used usually with pistons, turbine blades, or perhaps a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, changing chemical stamina into beneficial mechanical stamina. The initially commercially effective internal combustion engine was produced by Étienne Lenoir about 1859.

The expression internal combustion engine commonly pertains with an engine inside that combustion is intermittent, including the more familiar four-stroke plus two-stroke piston motors, together with variants, like the six-stroke piston engine as well as the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion machines utilize continuous combustion: fuel turbines, jet machines plus many rocket machines, every of that are internal combustion motors found on the same principle because earlier described.

The ICE is very different from outside combustion motors, like steam or Stirling machines, inside that the power is delivered with a functioning fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion goods. Working fluids is air, hot water, pressurized water or fluid sodium, heated inside a boiler. ICEs are driven by energy-dense fuels including gasoline or diesel, liquids produced from fossil fuels. While there are numerous stationary applications, many ICEs are utilized inside mobile applications plus are the dominant energy provide for vehicles, aircraft, plus vessels.
The 70 Series is a family of Toyota Land Cruiser models yielded from 1984 till the modern. It changed the 25-year-old 40 Series because the off-road workhorse of the Land Cruiser history, whilst the 60 Series developed into more comfortable passenger off-road cars. Despite main changes inside styling plus many technological updates, the 70 Series was crafted with retain the off-road abilities plus toughness for that the 40 Series had become acknowledged. The 70 Series was advertised throughout the planet, except for nations like the USA, Canada, Mexico, Brazil plus Korea.

Originally, model numbers 70 from 74 referred with the 2-door brief plus medium wheelbase versions. These were the successors of the well-known 40 Series, like the FJ40. Model numbers 75 from 77 referred with the long-wheelbase adaptation, that was obtainable in pick-up plus 2-door troop carrier models plus, inside a some markets, a 4-door wagon. These were the successors of the less-well recognized long-wheelbase 40 Series, like the FJ45. In 1999, Toyota introduced many changes plus changed the model designations, where the long-wheelbase models became the 78 plus 79. In 2007, the 76 was added, when the modern dual-cab models furthermore share the 79 model designation. Short-wheelbase models are just inside creation now for a some select markets.

As with all Land Cruisers, the letters at the beginning of the model amount designate the engine of the car. Common motors inside the 70 series include the 3F petrol engine, the 2H diesel engine, the 1FZ petrol engine, the 1HZ diesel engine, plus many newly, the 1VD diesel engine. For a when the BJ73 Hardtop was obtainable in the Italian plus Spanish marketplace with a VM five-cylinder HR588 2.5-litre turbodiesel—it the "B" prefix was used because considering the initial 4-cylinder diesel 70 series came with all the 3B.

Square-bodied Land Cruiser utility 4x4. Two or 4 doorways with steel doorways plus top, slanted windshield. The front-clip styling remains much that way of the 40 Series. The grille is mesh or could comprise of 3 horizontal bars.

Both have 3 extra horizontal slots inside a single line beneath the grille. Front turn data are square with triangular white lens ingredients beneath, plus are affixed with the vertical edge of the front clip above the fenders plus only outboard of every headlight. The top is difficult or soft. The doorways are difficult, with roll-up windows. Taillights are lengthy, vertical rectangles inset low into the back bodywork. Rear doorways are paired swing-out 'barn doors'. Windshields of several military versions can fold atop bonnet. Available inside numerous types, including a four-door semi-long, a pickup, plus long-wheelbase utility wagon.

With the exception of the some light-duty models which evolved into the Prado, all 70 Series Land Cruisers have strong leaf-sprung back axles. Solid front axles were leaf-sprung till 1998, whenever Toyota decided inside prefer of the coil spring front suspension with leading arms, along with a somewhat lighter front axle. Additionally beginning inside 1999 the back leaf springs were extended with permit for better wheel travel plus improved ride comfort.

Many 70 Series Land Cruisers employ inline six-cylinder motors. The exception is the V8 diesel 1VD-FTV engine introduced inside certain markets inside 2007. Regardless of the engine, a 5-speed guide transmission provides energy with a part-time four-wheel-drive transfer case with significant plus low range. The strong front axles are a full-floating shape with manual locking hubs. The strong back axles are obtainable in semi-floating plus full-floating variations. Selectable locking differentials are factory choices inside certain markets.

Basic comfort qualities including air-conditioning plus radio are accessible, yet the 70 Series lacks most processed plus deluxe highlights of the higher priced passenger Land Cruisers.

The suspension, inside plus simple design of these models are almost identical with the more well-known longer wheelbase 75 series Land Cruisers, yet the frame plus body is a lot smaller. This enables the Land Cruiser with be more nimble off road. This model was common because a individual off road transport, however, considering the Land Cruiser was advertised virtually only because a commercial plus government car plus considering these were not available inside the biggest car marketplace inside the globe, the US, some were built, compared with alternative Land Cruiser models.

But, these models were available all over the planet inside the 1980s plus early 1990s. They is found inside Japan, Asia, Africa, Switzerland, the Middle East, New Zealand plus South America. The short-wheelbase models are not very because normal inside Australia, however they are popular inside the homeland of Japan, where compactness plus tough 4X4 are a welcome combination; they are additionally selected by the Syrian state. Today, few short-wheelbase 70 series are available new—some continue to be inside creation now inside several select South American nations plus remains being yielded by Toyota Car Body at the Yoshiwara Plant inside Toyota City.

The 70 series was just available inside tiny numbers inside the North American marketplace. For 1984–1986, the BJ70 was available inside tiny numbers inside Canada. All were identically prepared, apart from inside, plus outdoor color. The just different variation was, inside 1985 they had a 12-volt electronic program. In 1985, Toyota opted for a 24-volt program. The HZJ79 cab plus chassis continues to be obtainable in Canada, though inside truly limited quantities. Further restrictions are which they are just accessible with the mining industry, plus just by 1 Toyota dealer inside Saskatchewan. The 70 series wasn't available inside the US.

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